What Intelligence Means:
The word intelligence does not have a precise meaning for all the psychologists. Some writers like Meaninam, Ballard and Stern believe in general intelligence, while others like Thorndike are of the opinion that there is no general intelligence but only particular intelligence and individual abilities. Ebbinghans considers intelligence as the ability to abstract, compare, contrast and classify. To Cyril Burt, it is the power of reasoning and adjustment to new situations. Woodworth opines that intelligence involves doing a miscellaneous lot of things and doing them right. It is purposive, which means the ability consciously to adapt to ends. Binet, a well-known psychologist who formulated “patience puzzle” to test the powers of adaptability, thinks that intelligence consists of:
- Consciousness of the ends to be attained.
- The trial of possible means to end.
- Auto-criticism of the trails made.
Similarly, another famous psychologist explains intelligence as responsiveness to relationship. It deals with the person’s internal relations and the manner in which he is able to adjust himself. It also includes his thinking and his conduct to new requirements.
H.J. Eysenck, in his book “Uses and Abuses of Psychology” very ably discusses the topic of Intelligence Tests. He points out the fallacy of normal or ordinary thinking when intelligence is .taken as the ability to acquire knowledge, or the capacity for abstract thinking, or the equivalent of wisdom, or quickness of thinking or depth of profundity, or a combination of some of these or something else. Then continuing the discussion of the subject, he discounts the tendency of some who think that because there is no agreement among the psychologists with regard to a precise definition of the term “intelligence”, so it cannot be measured. In this connection, he rightly maintains that’ notwithstanding the differences, we can use certain standard tests drawn by experts in the field after patient and laboriouS research and experiments.
The Measurement of Intelligence:
Everyone of us knows how irritating an unintelligent individual can be. A man who does not follow directions which have been clearly explained to him, who keeps on doing the wrong thing in spite of his being told what is wrong in his action,• who cannot use his commonsense but needs to be watched and guided all the time, can create chaotic conditions in any organization. Some people are quite capable of doing things properly and well, but will not set their minds to it. There are others, on the other hand, who despite their hest efforts, their keenness and plodding, will invariably get things wrong, just because they lack the . mental capacity necessary for efficient performance of the job. With the former type of person, the problem would be how to get the person to put in more effort. With the later type, on the other hand, greater effort is not likely to be of any avail, on account of a basic deficiency in the individual. In fact, mental deficiency may range from minor drawbacks in
thinking and remembering to the grosser forms of defect, which may be a positive handicap in nearly every conceivable type of work. One of the uses of the intelligence tests lies in that they provide a convenient method of telling off the man who is basically deficient form one who may be expected to get on reasonably well in his work.
Types of Intelligence Tests:
An intelligence. tests is a collection of problems, arranged in order of increasing difficulty which have to be solved within specified time limits. The idea underlying an intelligence test is that a more intelligent person will be able to solve more problems quickly and correctly, as compared with a less intelligent one. The problem may be put in the form of words, patterns, picture or any other material suitable for the purpose. Considered with regard to the materials used in their design, there are two types of intelligence tests, verbal and nonverbal. The items in a verbal intelligence test are stated in language form. Non-verbal tests, on the other hand, are made up of materials such as patterns, line drawings, pictures, wooden or •plastic pieces and the like. Non-verbal (matrices) intelligence tests are primarily used to remove the disadvantages of those candidates who may not have sufficient proficiency in the language. Both verbal and non-verbal types of tests are used in the I.S.S.B to measure and grade the intelligence level of the candidates.
Verbal Intelligence Tests:
In the verbal intelligence test, the candidate is given approximately 80 questions to be answered in 35 minutes. Although some of the questions are rather long and the total number appears to be high, they nevertheless call for generally one word answers and can be easily tackled within the time limit. In order to score high marks, the candidate must listen carefully to the illustrations as they are explained by the psychologists conducting the examination. Once the problem is understood and the essentials grasped, the candidate will have no difficulty in finding the answers. Since the time is extremely limited, the candidate should not waste time on difficult problems which take time for proper comprehension. The candidate must attempt all easy and known problems in the first instance reserving the more difficult ones to be tackled later. In this way he can score more marks than wasting. time on difficult questions. Accuracy is another factor, which contributes considerably fer high marks. It is better to do one question rightly than attempting three questions incorrectly. The merely attempted questions and wrong answers do not carry any marks. It is, therefore, better to ensure that the answer given is right before rushing on to other questions in great haste.
The candidate must he patient and steady when atterripting the questions. It is not necessary that all the questions should be attempted, especially in a hurry. It is perhaps sufficient, “ever if the candidate is able to answer 50 per cent of the questions correctly. By ,skipping over the difficult and time consuming questions, and by tackling the easier questions first, the candidate would he able to secure a good grading. What is more, this method of approach will give enough confidence and help the candidate to resolve even the more difficult questions. I le must also remember that the psychologist awards marks, more .on the basis of the candidate’s performance in the Projective Personality Tests, than on the basis of the Intelligence Tests.
The key factor in an intelligence problem is to perceive and appreciate the relationship between different things given in the setting, within the specified time. In order to • perceive this key relationship, the candidate must observe the pattern or set of words, figures, etc., carefully. To help the candidate understand the various types of relationships, a large number of illustrations have been provided in this chapter. These illustrations cover practically all types of problems that generally appear in I.S.S.B intelligence tests. The candidate should note and analyze the particular relationship explained under each illustration.