• Choose the word that is nearly similar in meaning to the word in capital letters.
1.   LACUNAE   
 (a) Tiny marine life(b) Shallow water(c) Local dialect(d) Missing parts
 (a) Moral lesson(b) Sudden outburst(c) Contradiction(d) Pallid imitation
3.   GROTTO   
 (a) Statue(b) Cavern(c) Neighbourhood(d) Type of moth
4.   FETTER   
 (a) Rot(b) To restrain(c) Make better(d) Enable to fly
5.   STOICISM   
 (a) Indifference(b) Boldness(c) Deep affection(d) Patient endurance
 (a) Edible(b) Parched(c) Generous(d) Mature
 (a) Compliment(b) Summary(c) Perfume(d) Awkwardness


  • Pick the most nearly opposite in meaning to the capitalized words.
1.   TWINE   
 (a) Straighten(b) Continue(c) Unravel(d) Detach
2.   FRUGAL   
 (a) Prodigal(b) Intemperate(c) Extravagant(d) Profuse
3.   GAWKY   
 (a) Neat(b) Handy(c) Graceful(d) Handsome
 (a) Firm(b) Decided(c)      Inflexible(d) Constant
5.   CONGEAL   
 (a) Liquefy(b) Mollify(c) Harden(d) Solidify


  • Correct the following sentences:
  • Either of these three umbrellas will suit me.
  • Shall you not take my word in this matter?
  • This poor man was suffering much for a long time past.
  • If he had not died, he would grow up to be a murderer.
  • Neither he nor I are in the wrong.
  • It is high time they mend this road.
  • I heard him went down the stairs.
  • Paper is made of wood.


  • Any of these three umbrellas will suit me.
  • Should you not have my word in this matter?
  • This poor man had been suffering much for a long time past.
  • If he had not died, he would have grown up to be a murderer.
  • Neither he nor I am in the wrong.

(I)    It is high time they mended this road.

  • I heard him going down the stairs.
  • Paper is made from wood.

U Use the following idioms in sentences to make their meaning clear:

1.To put the lid on2.Flavour of the month
3.Zero hours4.Gloom and doom
5.To pig out6.Bag people
7.Compassion fatigue8.No to mince matters
  1. To put the lid on / keep the lid on

Meaning: to keep something secret to, to keep something under control

Use in sentence: I don’t know how but we’ll have to put the lid on that rumour about her. Use in sentence: The government is keeping the lid on inflation.

  1. Flavour in the month

Meaning: temporarily popular

Use in sentence: This rap artist is pop music’s current flavour of the month.

  1. Zero hour

Meaning: the time when something important is to start

Use in sentence: The air force planes waited until zero hour in order to begin their bombing mission.

  1. Gloom and doom –

Meaning: the feeling that a situation is bad and is not likely to improve

Use in sentence: Come on, it’s not all doom and gloom, if we make a real effort, we could still win.

  1. To pig out

Meaning: eat ravenously, gorge oneself

Use in sentence: We went to the store and pigged out on soft ice cream.

  1. Bag people

Meaning: homeless people

Use in sentence: Bag people always.wander here and there in search of shelter.

  1. Compassion fatigue

Meaning: a weariness of and diminishing public response to frequent requests for charity

Use in sentence: More people are hungry today than ever before. Many social workers have compassion fatigue – tired out with all the repeated calls to do good.

  1. Not mince matters

Meaning: moderate or restrain one’s language to be polite Use in sentence: Not mince matters, I feel he should resign.

❑ Use five of the following pairs of words in sentences: (i)      affluence, effluence           (ii)                                        wretch, retch

(iii) euphemistic, euphuistic                                    (iv) amoral, immoral

(v)         imperial, imperious                                       (vi) degrade, denigrate

(vii) temporal, temporary                                      (viii) precipitate, precipitous

  • Affluence:

Meaning: having a lot of money or owning a lot of things

Use in sentence: When the economy crashed, many people of affluence became poor.


Meaning: a thing that flows out or forth

Use in sentence: Its manifestation in time is not a creation; it is an effluence from the eternal fount of spirit.

  • Wretch:

Meaning: a person who experiences something unpleasant

Use in sentence: A gentleman said that a week ago he was the wretch in the county, but now saved.


Meaning: to react in a way as if you are vomiting Use in sentence: The sight of blood makes him retch.

  • Euphemistic:

Meaning: a word or phrase used to avoid saying an unpleasant or offensive word Use in sentence: ‘Senior citizen’ is a euphemism for ‘old person’.


Meaning: affected elegance of language

Use in sentence: Euphuistic style has been used in many of his writings.

  • Amoral:

Meaning: without moral principles

Use in sentence: During battle, many soldiers become amoral and forget the difference between wrong and right while fighting for their lives.


Meaning: morally wrong

Use in sentence: It’s an immoral tax, because the poor will pay relatively more.

  • Imperial:

Meaning: belonging or relating to an empire or the person or country that rules it

Use in sentence: Although the imperial child was so young, he still became the next king.


Meaning: unpleasantly proud and expecting obedience

Use in sentence: He sent them away with an imperious wave of the hand.

  • Degrade:

Meaning: to lower in rank or status

Use in sentence: He likes to degrade people by calling them embarrassing names.


Meaning: to say that someone or something is not good or important

Use in sentence: You shouldn’t denigrate people just because they have different beliefs from you.

  • Temporal:

Meaning: relating to practical matters or physical things, rather than spiritual ones

Use in sentence: Her starting point: ‘The future is the only temporal area over which people have power’.


Meaning: not lasting or needed for very long

Use in sentence: The ceasefire will only provide a temporary solution to the crisis.

  • Precipitate:

Meaning: to make something happen suddenly or sooner than expected Use in sentence: Fear of losing her job precipitated her into action.


Meaning: very steep, perpendicular

Use in sentence: People were shocked by his precipitous fall from political power.